Dendrimers are an attractive platform for macromolecular imaging due to the presence of multiple terminal groups on the exterior of the molecule. Through application of appropriate metal ion chelates, large numbers of metal ions for imaging (paramagnetic or radioopaque) and therapy (radioactive particle emitters) may be conjugated to the dendrimer in combination with a targeting vector, through classic organic synthetic techniques. Thus, a large amount of these metal ions potentially may be site specifically delivered directly into the body with the dendrimer as the vehicle with the targeting vector directing the modified dendrimer. The development of targeted macromolecular agents with acceptable blood retention times and selective organ uptake then has the potential for various biological applications. A review of comparative studies of dendrimers with various externally appended imaging and targeting agents is presented herein.