Wilms' tumors, or nephroblastomas, are renal embryonal malignancies with a high incidence in humans. Nephroblastomas are uncommon in nonhuman primates. This report describes three cases of spontaneous proliferative renal tumors in young monkeys: two cases of unilateral kidney nephroblastomas in baboons and a nephroblastomatosis in a cynomolgus macaque. Histologically, both baboon tumors were typical of Wilms' tumors found in humans, with proliferative epithelial cells forming tubules and aborted glomeruli, nephrogenic rests and proliferative fibrovascular tissue. The left kidney of the macaque was markedly enlarged and histologically similar to the baboon tumors, although normal kidney architecture was completely effaced by primitive tubules and occasional glomeruli surrounded by edematous stromal tissue. Cytogenetic analysis did not detect any macaque or baboon equivalents to human Wilms' tumor chromosomal abnormalities. By human pathology classification, the diffuse nature of the macaque tumor is more consistent with nephroblastomatosis than nephroblastoma. This differentiation is the first to be reported in a species other than human. The nephroblastomas described here are the first nephroblastomas to be reported in baboons. Our observations indicate that nonhuman primate nephroblastomatosis and nephroblastomas develop in a similar way to Wilms' tumors in humans, although no genetic marker has been associated with nephroblastomas of nonhuman primates thus far.