The placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP), adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase (A-LAP) and leukocyte-derived aminopeptidase (L-RAP) belong to one distinct group of the M1 family of amimopeptidases, which we term the "Oxytocinase subfamily". They share HEXXH(X)18E Zn-binding and GAMEN motifs essential for the enzymatic activities. Intracellular localization is the characteristic feature of the subfamily members. While P-LAP is translocated from intracellular vesicles to plasma membrane in a stimulus-dependent manner, both A-LAP and L-RAP are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. They contain sequences necessary for the specific localization in the cell. It is getting evident that the subfamily members play important roles in the maintenance of homeostasis including maintenance of normal pregnancy, memory retention, blood pressure regulation and antigen presentation. In this review, current situation of this newly identified subfamily is summarized.