Cytokinins influence many aspects of plant growth and development. The current model for cytokinin signaling is a multi-step phosphorelay similar to the prokaryotic two-component systems that are used in responses to environmental stimuli. Recently, progress has been made in improving our understanding of the molecular mechanism that underlies cytokinin signaling. Molecular and genetic analyses of loss-of-function mutants indicate that the two-component elements that are involved in cytokinin signaling have redundant and overlapping functions. These elements regulate both the shoot and root meristems, are required for the development of fertile flowers, and modulate the response to varying nutrient levels.