Our laboratory recently reported the successful construction of homozygous rapid (Bio. 82.73/H-Patr) and homozygous slow (Bio. 82.73/H-Pat(s)) acetylator congenic Syrian hamsters. These hamsters are isogenic except for the polymorphic acetylator gene locus (Pat) and perhaps other closely linked loci. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the expression of acetylator genotype both in vivo and in vitro in a variety of hepatic and extrahepatic organ cytosols. Levels of arylamine N-acetyl-transferase were generally high and in the relative order: liver greater than colon greater than kidney greater than pancreas greater than prostate, urinary bladder, and lung. However, an acetylator gene dose-response was clearly expressed in each tissue, with highest levels in homozygous Patr acetylators, intermediate levels in heterozygous Patr/Pat(s) acetylators, and lowest levels in homozygous Pat(s) acetylators. The magnitude of the acetylator genotype-dependent differences in N-acetyltransferase activity were substrate specific, wherein p-aminobenzoic acid showed the largest differences and p-aminophenol the smallest. The N-acetylation of p-aminobenzoic acid in vivo also reflected acetylator genotype in the congenic hamsters. These results further document the successful construction of rapid and slow acetylator congenic hamsters which should prove very valuable in future studies to assess the role of acetylator genotype in the toxicity and carcinogenicity of arylamine chemicals.