Deficiency of citrin, a liver-type mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier (AGC), encoded by the SLC25A13 gene on chromosome 7q21.3, causes autosomal recessive disorders: adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2) and neonatal hepatitis associated with intrahepatic cholestasis (NICCD). So far, we have described 12 SLC25A13 mutations: 11 were from Japan and one from Israel. Three mutations found in Chinese and Vietnamese patients were the same as those in Japanese patients. In the present study, we identified a novel mutation IVS6+1G>C in a Japanese CTLN2 patient and widely screened 12 SLC25A13 mutations found in Japanese patients in control individuals from East Asia to confirm our preliminary results that the carrier frequency was high in Asian populations. Mutations 851-854del and 1638-1660dup were found in all Asian countries tested, and 851-854del associated with 290-haplotype in microsatellite marker D7S1812 was especially frequent. Other mutations frequently detected were IVS11+1G>A in Japanese and Korean, S225X in Japanese, and IVS6+5G>A in Chinese populations. We found a remarkable difference in carrier rates in China (including Taiwan) between north (1/940) and south (1/48) of the Yangtze River. We detected many carriers in Chinese (64/4169 = 1/65), Japanese (20/1372 = 1/69) and Korean (22/2455 = 1/112) populations, suggesting that over 80,000 East Asians are homozygotes with two mutated SLC25A13 alleles.