Raynaud phenomenon

Am J Nurs. 2005 Aug;105(8):56-65; quiz 65-6. doi: 10.1097/00000446-200508000-00028.


Raynaud phenomenon, a vascular disorder triggered by cold or emotional stress, results from an exaggerated vasoconstriction and vasospasm of the digital arteries and arterioles. The fingers, and, less often, the toes, are affected; ear lobes, lips, nose, and nipples may also be involved. This article describes the difference between primary and secondary Raynaud phenomenon and reviews etiology, diagnosis, prevention, and management of symptoms.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Cold Temperature
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Raynaud Disease* / classification
  • Raynaud Disease* / etiology
  • Raynaud Disease* / physiopathology
  • Stress, Psychological / complications