Aim: To describe the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic features of this angiomatous neurocutaneous syndrome, which is the most frequent one, and to report a personal series of 41 patients.
Patients and methods: Forty one patients--31 females and 10 males--were studied during childhood and then, several patients were followed during many years, which allowed us to learn about the evolution of the abnormalities. The cutaneous lesions were classified as hemangiomas in 30 patients (73%) and as vascular malformations in 11 patients (27%).
Results: A cerebellar anomaly (unilateral hemispheric hypoplasia and Dandy-Walker malformation) was seen in 13 patients (31.5%) cerebral cortical dysplasia in 4 patients (10%), aortic arch coarctation in 6 patients (15%), and congenital cardiopathy in 5 patients (12%). The most frequent abnormalities were intracranial and/or extracranial vascular malformations. Persistence of the trigeminal artery was observed in 7 patients (17%), absence or severe hypoplasia of an internal carotid artery in 13 patients (32%), absence of a vertebral artery in 7 patients (17%), hypoplasia of intracranial arteries in 6 patients (15%) and aneurysmal enlargement of carotid or vertebral arteries in 5 patients (12%). Also were observed 4 patients (10%) with intracranial hemangioma, 2 (5%) with hemangioma in mediastinum, and 3 (7.5%) with intestinal hemangioma, all of which disappeared during the first years of life. Aneurysmal enlargement of the carotid and vertebral arteries and intracranial branches also disappeared after a process of progressive narrowing of the arterial lumen that caused complete obstruction of these arteries. At the same time the cutaneous hemangioma regressed. During this process, collateral vascularization through branches of the external carotid artery and of the non-affected branches of the contralateral intracranial arteries developed.
Conclusion: This neurocutaneous syndrome is the most frequent one and it is associated with several types of vascular and non-vascular abnormalities which can involve any organ of the body. Internal and external hemangiomas and hemangiomatous lesions progress and tend to regress concomitantly.