Cocaine-induced Myocardial Infarction: An Analysis and Review of the Literature

J Emerg Med. Mar-Apr 1992;10(2):169-77. doi: 10.1016/0736-4679(92)90212-c.

Abstract

The objectives of this paper are to analyze the case reports of cocaine-induced myocardial infarction and to better define the clinical characteristics of this syndrome. An English language literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, and a bibliographic review of all identified articles and book chapters was conducted. Ninety-one cases of cocaine-induced myocardial infarction were identified. Intranasal, intravenous, and inhalational routes of abuse all resulted in myocardial infarction. Fourty-four percent of patients had previously noted chest pain. Eighty-seven percent of patients were cigarette smokers. Two-thirds of patients had their myocardial infarction within 3 hours of the use of cocaine (with a range of 1 minute to 4 days). Cardiac catheterizations were abnormal in 30 of 54 patients (55%). Of the 24 patients with reported follow-up, 14 (58%) had further ischemic events after discharge. In conclusion, cocaine-induced myocardial infarction identifies a group of young individuals who may be prone to recurrent complications after initial presentation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Cocaine / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / chemically induced*
  • Myocardial Infarction / therapy
  • Recurrence
  • Risk Factors
  • Thrombolytic Therapy

Substances

  • Cocaine