The phosphatemic property of maxacalcitol, a newly developed artificial active vitamin D analog, has not been compared with that of calcitriol. Non-diabetic hemodialysis patients with plasma intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels greater than 300 pg/mL were included in this analysis. They were treated with either maxacalcitol or calcitriol for 24 weeks. In total, 80 patients were treated with maxacalcitol and 46 were treated with calcitriol. Pretreatment circulating levels of intact PTH, calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) were comparable in both treatment groups. Both treatments significantly decreased plasma intact PTH levels (P<0.0001) and increased serum Ca levels (P<0.0001). However, the intact PTH levels were significantly lower in the maxacalcitol group after 24 weeks of the treatments (P<0.01). The decreasing tendency of plasma intact PTH level was significantly evident in the maxcalcitol group (P<0.01). However, the increasing tendency of the serum Pi level was significantly greater in the calcitriol group (P<0.05). Thus, maxacalcitol is a possible less phosphatemic active vitamin D agent, if not non-phosphatemic agent, which might reduce the risk of extraskeletal calcification.