Serotypes of serious, sometimes fatal, streptococcal infections in Sweden during 1988-1989 were analyzed. The T1M1 type totally dominated, representing almost 70% of all group A streptococci from serious and uncomplicated infections at the peak of the outbreak. Immunoblots of isolates from various patient groups showed that all isolates produced high amounts of erythrogenic toxin (ET) B and high amounts of ET-C, whereas ET-A was released only in small amounts and from few isolates. ELISAs showed high antibody levels to these toxins and to the M1 antigen in patients with uncomplicated infections. Low antibody levels against M1 were seen in patients with bacteremia and in fatal cases; the latter also had low antibody levels against ET-B. It seems likely that a combination of production of large amounts of toxin and low antibody titers to it and to the M antigen of the infecting isolate are determining factors for the outcome of the infection. No signs of primary immune deficiency were noted.