Quantification of acetogenins in Annona muricata linked to atypical parkinsonism in guadeloupe

Mov Disord. 2005 Dec;20(12):1629-33. doi: 10.1002/mds.20632.


Atypical parkinsonism in Guadeloupe has been associated with the consumption of fruit and infusions or decoctions prepared from leaves of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), which contains annonaceous acetogenins, lipophilic inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We have determined the concentrations of annonacin, the major acetogenin in A. muricata, in extracts of fruit and leaves by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry. An average fruit is estimated to contain about 15 mg of annonacin, a can of commercial nectar 36 mg, and a cup of infusion or decoction 140 microg. As an indication of its potential toxicity, an adult who consumes one fruit or can of nectar a day is estimated to ingest over 1 year the amount of annonacin that induced brain lesions in rats receiving purified annonacin by intravenous infusion.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetogenins
  • Annona / chemistry*
  • Annona / toxicity
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods
  • Fatty Alcohols / adverse effects*
  • Fatty Alcohols / analysis*
  • Fatty Alcohols / chemistry
  • Guadeloupe / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Lactones / adverse effects*
  • Lactones / analysis*
  • Lactones / chemistry
  • Molecular Weight
  • Parkinsonian Disorders / etiology*
  • Plant Extracts / adverse effects
  • Plant Extracts / analysis
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization / methods


  • Acetogenins
  • Fatty Alcohols
  • Lactones
  • Plant Extracts