Five independent studies have reported associations between serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) polymorphisms and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Four studies found evidence for association between the long-allele of a 44-base pair insertion/deletion polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), one of the studies found association to a variable number tandem repeat within intron 2, another to the T-allele of a single base pair substitution in the 3'-untranslated regions and another reported preferential transmission of a haplotype of the three markers (long-allele/10-repeat-allele/T-allele). One further study found no evidence for these associations. We investigated the association of these three markers in two samples of ADHD patients from the United Kingdom (n = 197) and Taiwan (n = 212), using within-family tests of association. No association was found between any of the three markers in either of the two populations. Although we found some evidence for the preferential transmission of a rare haplotype (long-allele/9-repeat-allele/T-allele; chi2 = 4.5, P = 0.034), we concluded that this most likely occurred by chance factors alone.
(c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.