The CD4 lymphocyte plays a pivotal role in both sarcoidosis and HIV infection. Caring for a patient with both conditions represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We describe a patient, previously diagnosed with sarcoidosis, who subsequently contracted HIV infection. Manifestations of sarcoidosis were clinically silent until highly active anti-retroviral therapy was instituted. Her condition improved with the institution of corticosteroids. The diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas encountered in patients with both conditions will be discussed including a complete review of the literature.