Rab proteins are small GTPases involved in the regulation of vesicular membrane traffic. Research done in the past years has demonstrated that some of these proteins are under the control of signal transduction pathways. Still, several recent papers point out to a new unexpected role for this family of Ras-related proteins, as potential regulators of intracellular signaling pathways. In particular, several evidence indicate that members of the Rab family of small GTPases, through their effectors, are key molecules participating to the regulation of numerous signal transduction pathways profoundly influencing cell proliferation, cell nutrition, innate immune response, fragmentation of compartments during mitosis and apoptosis. Even more surprisingly, direct involvement of Rab proteins in signaling to the nucleus has been demonstrated. This review will focus on aspects of Rab proteins function connected to signal transduction and, in particular, connections between membrane traffic and other cell pathways will be examined.