The relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and cardiovascular disease has been controversial. Here we review recent literature assessing whether hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Studies from the past 6 years evaluating the association of SUA with cardiovascular disease were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane library searches, bibliography cross-referencing, and review articles. Twenty-one cohort studies in healthy and high-risk patients with cardiovascular disease were identified and reviewed. In studies of high-risk patients, in which more overall events were recorded, 10 of 11 studies were supportive of an independent association. In 10 studies of healthy patients, 6 suggested an independent association of SUA with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Increasing SUA is likely an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in high-risk individuals. However, the magnitude of excess risk attributable to high SUA is likely to be small in healthy individuals. Trials of SUA-lowering therapy in hyperuricemic patients evaluating the effect on cardiovascular outcomes are justified in high-risk patients.