Each year, endometrial cancer develops in about 142,000 women worldwide, and an estimated 42,000 women die from this cancer. The typical age-incidence curve for endometrial cancer shows that most cases are diagnosed after the menopause, with the highest incidence around the seventh decade of life. The appearance of symptoms early in the course explains why most women with endometrial cancer have early-stage disease at presentation. For all stages taken together, the overall 5-year survival is around 80%. There is a substantial prognostic difference between the histological types of endometrial cancers. The most common lesions (type 1) are typically hormone sensitive and low stage and have an excellent prognosis, whereas tumours of type 2 are high grade with a tendency to recur, even in early stage. The cornerstone of treatment for endometrial cancer is surgery, which not only is important for staging purposes but also enables appropriate tailoring of adjuvant treatment modalities that benefit high-risk patients only. We review current concepts about epidemiology, pathology, pathogenesis, risk factors and prevention, diagnosis, staging, prognostic factors, treatment, and follow-up of endometrial cancer.