PAD has been overlooked in many epidemiologic studies evaluating cardiovascular risk associated with renal disease. Conversely, CKD has not been evaluated as a potential risk factor in epidemiologic studies of PAD. PAD, however,seems to be more prevalent among patients with even moderate CKD than in the general population and is most common among chronic dialysis patients, one third or more of whom have a low ABI. Patients with CKD also seem to be at increased risk for developing claudication and for requiring surgical intervention for lower extremity PAD. Furthermore, even moderate CKD seems to be a risk factor for postoperative death and complications after both lower extremity amputation and revascularization procedures. Conversely, even asymptomatic PAD seems to be a risk factor for death among dialysis patients. In the general population, statins, antiplatelet agents (particularly clopidogrel), antihypertensive agents, and ACE inhibitors all have a proven benefit in reducing cardiovascular events in patients with PAD and in some instances may also reduce PAD events. Available evidence suggests that patients with CKD also experience cardio-vascular risk reduction with statin and ACE-inhibitor therapy, but these therapies have not been shown to reduce PAD events specifically in patients with CKD. Further studies are needed to identify interventions that can specifically reduce the incidence of PAD complications in patientswith CKD. Although it is clear that mortality and complication rates after both lower extremity amputation and revascularization are increased in patients with even moderate CKD, currently available observational studies do not provide clear guidance for surgical decision making in CKD patients with limb-threatening ischemia. Further studies are needed to evaluate the risksand benefits of amputation over revascularizationamong patients with CKD and to investigatereasons for the high mortality associated with these procedures in this patient group. Further studies are also needed to measure the impact of CKD on care processes for PAD with the goal of identifying target areas for improvement.