We present here the results of the Sino-MONICA-Beijing stroke study based on 700,000 Beijing residents in 1984-1986. To compare incidence rates for stroke with other communities and countries, we adopted the criteria of the WHO Collaborative Study of 17 centers which used the same definition and methodology as was used in this study. Over the 3-year period of the study, 2,593 stroke events were registered in the 25- to 74-year age-group. The incidence rate for all strokes was 189.5/100,000 and the incidence rate for first strokes was 133.6/100,000. Men had a significantly higher incidence rate than women (all strokes 219.7/100,000 for male vs. 160.5/100,000 for female, OR = 1.32, 99% limits 1.19-1.46; first strokes 151.6/100,000 for male vs. 116.4/100,000 for female, OR = 1.25, 99% limits 1.11-1.42). In comparison with other studies, age-adjusted incidence rate of stroke in Beijing was higher than in other countries, especially for hemorrhagic stroke. The proportion of hemorrhagic stroke related to other types of stroke was also higher in Beijing. Further analysis of the cases confirmed by computerized tomography also supported this finding. Unlike the incidence rates, the 4-week case fatality rate for women, 39.5%, was higher than for men, 32.8%. This finding was confirmed by a multiple logistic analysis controlling for age (p less than 0.001) and for previous stroke (p less than 0.001). The adjusted sex difference is also significant (OR = 1.37, p less than 0.001). In addition, results showed that men had a higher hospitalization rate than women. More women than men were treated at home, possibly indicating better medical care for men.