We studied 51 patients meeting clinical criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients were treated for 12 weeks with a formulation of bovine cortex phosphatidylserine (BC-PS; 100 mg t.i.d.) or placebo, and those treated with the drug improved on several cognitive measures relative to those administered placebo. Differences between treatment groups were most apparent among patients with less severe cognitive impairment. Results suggest that phosphatidylserine may be a promising candidate for study in the early stages of AD.