Primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2005 Jun;2(2):55-60. doi: 10.1007/s11904-005-0019-1.


Primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection represents the initial stage of disease that immediately follows viral entry into the body. Primary infection is frequently accompanied by an acute retroviral syndrome with associated high levels of plasma HIV-1 RNA and the development of host immune responses. The identification of subjects during this period requires a high index of suspicion and an understanding of how to make the diagnosis, as standard HIV-1 antibody tests can initially be negative. Identifying these people provides a unique opportunity for early counseling to reduce further transmission, facilitates entry into care, and allows for further study of the immunopathogenesis of disease and the potential role of early antiretroviral therapy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / adverse effects
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use*
  • HIV Infections* / blood
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections* / virology
  • HIV-1*
  • Humans
  • RNA, Viral / blood*


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • RNA, Viral