Context: Adiponectin and leptin are closely related to weight control and energy balance, whereas exercise affects elderly metabolic regulation and functional capacity.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate leptin and adiponectin responses in elderly males after exercise training and detraining.
Design: The study design was a 1-yr randomized controlled trial.
Setting: The study was performed at the Laboratory of Physical Education and Sport Science Department.
Participants: Fifty inactive men [age, 65-78 yr; body mass index (BMI), 28.7-30.2 kg/m2] were recruited from a volunteer database by word of mouth and fliers sent to medical practitioners, physiotherapists, and nursing homes in the local community.
Intervention(s): Participants were randomly assigned to a control (n = 10), low-intensity (n = 14), moderate-intensity (n = 12), or high-intensity training (HI; n = 14) group. Resistance training (6 months, 3 d/wk, 10 exercises/three sets) was followed by 6 months of detraining.
Main outcome measure(s): Strength, exercise energy cost, skinfold sum, body weight, maximal oxygen consumption, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and plasma leptin and adiponectin were determined at baseline and after training and detraining.
Results: Strength, maximal oxygen consumption, RMR, and exercise energy cost increased (P < 0.05) after training in an intensity-dependent manner. Skinfold sum and BMI were reduced by resistance training (P < 0.05), with HI being more effective (P < 0.05) than moderate-intensity/low-intensity training. Leptin was diminished (P < 0.05) by all treatments, whereas adiponectin increased (P < 0.05) only in HI. Detraining maintained training-induced changes only in HI. The percent leptin decrease was associated (P < 0.05) with the percent BMI decrease and the percent RMR increase, whereas the percent adiponectin increase was associated (P < 0.05) with the percent BMI decrease.
Conclusions: Resistance training and detraining may alter leptin and adiponectin responses in an intensity-dependent manner. Leptin and adiponectin changes were strongly associated with RMR and anthropometric changes.