Broad spectrum anti-infective potential of xanthohumol from hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in comparison with activities of other hop constituents and xanthohumol metabolites

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2005 Sep;49(9):827-31. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200500091.


This review summarizes the capacity of xanthohumol (XN) in comparison with additional hop constituents and metabolites to act as an antiinfective agent against microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi and malarial protozoa. XN was shown to inhibit the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. Antiviral activity was demonstrated against bovine viral diarrhea virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 and human immunodeficiency virus 1. Inhibition of two Trichophyton spp. was indicative of antifungal activity. Finally, XN potently inhibited the replication of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria. This effect was linked to the inhibition of glutathione-mediated degradation and detoxification of haemin, a by-product of the parasitic digestion of haemoglobin. Overall, these activities further contribute to the broad spectrum of biological effects observed with XN.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Bacteria / drug effects
  • Flavonoids
  • Fungi / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Humulus / chemistry*
  • Malaria / prevention & control
  • Molecular Structure
  • Plasmodium falciparum / drug effects
  • Propiophenones / chemistry
  • Propiophenones / metabolism*
  • Propiophenones / pharmacology*
  • Viruses / drug effects


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Flavonoids
  • Propiophenones
  • xanthohumol