Protein expression profiling identifies maspin and stathmin as potential biomarkers of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands

Int J Cancer. 2006 Feb 1;118(3):704-13. doi: 10.1002/ijc.21318.


Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is one of the most common malignant tumors of the salivary glands. It tends to grow slowly but is associated with a poor prognosis compared to other malignant salivary gland tumors. To identify specific markers of ACC, we examined protein expression profiling in ACC xenograft and normal salivary glands (NSG) using fluorescent 2-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2-D-DIGE), an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, that improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between the samples. To identify the proteins, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight peptide mass fingerprinting was carried out. Using these strategies, we detected 4 upregulated proteins and 5 downregulated proteins in ACC xenograft. Maspin and stathmin were selected for further analyses. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining showed a higher expression of these proteins in ACC xenograft and clinical ACC tissue compared to NSG. Furthermore, Expression of these proteins was correlated with the histologic grading of ACC (n = 10). Therefore, our data indicate that maspin and stathmin may be not only useful biomarkers of ACC but also markers of biologic behavior in this tumor.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism*
  • Blotting, Western
  • Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism*
  • Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / secondary
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
  • Female
  • Genes, Tumor Suppressor
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Nude
  • Middle Aged
  • Proteomics*
  • Salivary Gland Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • Salivary Glands / metabolism*
  • Serpins / metabolism*
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • Stathmin / metabolism*
  • Transplantation, Heterologous


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Serpins
  • Stathmin