Extensive pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and surgical emphysema as a complication of bleomycin therapy

Pediatr Radiol. 2005 Dec;35(12):1227-9. doi: 10.1007/s00247-005-1555-y. Epub 2005 Aug 12.


Bleomycin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent and one of the commonest cytotoxic drugs leading to pulmonary parenchymal damage. It generally leads to interstitial pneumonitis and fibrosis, hypersensitivity reactions and acute respiratory distress syndrome. We describe an 8-year-old boy who, following prolonged bleomycin therapy, demonstrated extensive air dissection and extrapulmonary air, an unusual and fatal complication.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / adverse effects*
  • Bleomycin / adverse effects*
  • Child
  • Drug Hypersensitivity / etiology
  • Dyspnea / chemically induced
  • Emphysema / chemically induced
  • Fatal Outcome
  • Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mediastinal Emphysema / chemically induced*
  • Pneumothorax / chemically induced*


  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
  • Bleomycin