Fragile X syndrome is caused by the absence of the fragile X mental-retardation protein (FMRP), an mRNA-binding protein, which may play important roles in the regulation of dendritic mRNA localization and/or synaptic protein synthesis. We have recently applied high-resolution fluorescence imaging methods to document the presence, motility and activity-dependent regulation of FMRP granule trafficking in dendrites and spines of cultured hippocampal neurons. In this study, we show that FMRP granules distribute to F-actin-rich compartments, including filopodia, spines and growth cones during the staged development of hippocampal neurons in culture. Fragile X mental-retardation protein granules were shown to colocalize with ribosomes, ribosomal RNA and MAP1B mRNA, a known FMRP target, which encodes a protein important for microtubule and actin stabilization. The levels of FMRP within dendrites were reduced by disruption of microtubule dynamics, but not by disruption of F-actin. Direct measurements of FMRP transport kinetics using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in living neurons showed that microtubules were required to induce the mGluR-dependent translocation into dendrites. This study provides further characterization of the composition and regulated trafficking of FMRP granules in dendrites of hippocampal neurons.