Incinerator workers are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins in workplace. Previous studies indicated that aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation, following by increased cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and 1B1 (CYP1B1) activity and expressions, was required for PAHs and dioxin induced toxicities. This study investigated whether municipal waste incinerator workers with frequent exposure to PAHs/dioxins in fly/bottom ash had increased CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expressions in peripheral leukocytes and assessed whether CYP1B1*3 polymorphism modified the association between PAHs/dioxins exposure and CYP1B1 expressions. Based on job contents and time-activity profiles, 112 workers were classified into high exposure, medium exposure and control groups. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene expressions in workers' leukocytes were determined with the real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method. After taking into account age, gender and smoking in the multiple regression analyses, CYP1B1, but not CYP1A1, levels were significantly higher in the high and medium exposure groups than in the control group, and there was a statistically significant interaction between exposure group and CYP1B1 genotype. These results suggested that CYP1B1 gene expression could be a potential biomarker of biologically effective dose for occupational exposure to PAHs/dioxins and CYP1B1*3 polymorphism modified effects of occupational exposures on CYP1B1 expression.