Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sudan is caused by Leishmania major zymodeme LON1. Self-healing usually occurs within 1 year but occasionally its duration is prolonged and treatment is required. The clinical forms are ulcers, nodules and noduloulcerative lesions. Here we describe seven patients with uncommon lesions that were difficult to recognize as Leishmania infections. These included mycetoma-like lesions, lesions that resembled L. tropica infection and others. One HIV/AIDS patient had Kaposi's sarcoma with Leishmania parasites in the Kaposi lesions. Most of these uncommon clinical forms were difficult to treat. The diagnosis depended on a high degree of suspicion and the demonstration of parasites in smears or culture. PCR was used to characterize parasites from the patients described here. Leishmania major was found by kDNA PCR in all patients, except one, who had a leishmanioma due to L. donovani. In three patients, including one with a L. tropica like-lesion, the parasites were confirmed as L. major by gp63 PCR-RFLP.