Microbial cellulose (MC) synthesized in abundance by Acetobacter xylinum shows vast potential as a novel wound healing system. The high mechanical strength and remarkable physical properties result from the unique nanostructure of the never-dried membrane. This article attempts to briefly summarize the recent developments and applications of MC in the emerging field of novel wound dressings and skin substitutes. It considers the properties of the synthesized material, its clinical performance, as well as progress in the commercialization of MC for wound care products. Efficient and inexpensive fermentation techniques, not presently available, will be necessary to produce large quantities of the polymer.