What are the economic consequences for households of illness and of paying for health care in low- and middle-income country contexts?

Soc Sci Med. 2006 Feb;62(4):858-65. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.07.001. Epub 2005 Aug 15.


This paper presents the findings of a critical review of studies carried out in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) focusing on the economic consequences for households of illness and health care use. These include household level impacts of direct costs (medical treatment and related financial costs), indirect costs (productive time losses resulting from illness) and subsequent household responses. It highlights that health care financing strategies that place considerable emphasis on out-of-pocket payments can impoverish households. There is growing evidence of households being pushed into poverty or forced into deeper poverty when faced with substantial medical expenses, particularly when combined with a loss of household income due to ill-health. Health sector reforms in LMICs since the late 1980s have particularly focused on promoting user fees for public sector health services and increasing the role of the private for-profit sector in health care provision. This has increasingly placed the burden of paying for health care on individuals experiencing poor health. This trend seems to continue even though some countries and international organisations are considering a shift away from their previous pro-user fee agenda. Research into alternative health care financing strategies and related mechanisms for coping with the direct and indirect costs of illness is urgently required to inform the development of appropriate social policies to improve access to essential health services and break the vicious cycle between illness and poverty.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cost of Illness*
  • Developed Countries / economics*
  • Developing Countries / economics*
  • Family Characteristics*
  • Financing, Personal / statistics & numerical data*
  • Health Care Costs / statistics & numerical data
  • Health Expenditures / statistics & numerical data*
  • Health Services Accessibility / economics*
  • Humans
  • Poverty*