The extract of Evodia rutaecarpa fruit and its preparation were used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and headache. To assess the possible herb-drug interaction, the ethanol extract of Evodia rutaecarpa fruit (1 and 2 g/kg/day, p.o.) and the herbal preparation Wu-Chu-Yu-Tang (1 and 5 g/kg/day) were given to rats daily for three consecutive days and on the fourth day theophylline was administered (2 mg/kg, i.v.). Theophylline concentration in blood was measured by a microdialysis coupled to a liquid chromatographic system. Pharmacokinetic data were calculated by noncompartmental model. The results indicate that the theophylline level was significantly decreased by the pretreatment with the extract of Evodia rutaecarpa and herbal preparation Wu-Chu-Yu-Tang with dose-related manner. It is suggested that the herb-drug interaction may occur through the induction of the metabolism of theophylline.