Extensive editing of a small fraction of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 genomes by four APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases

J Gen Virol. 2005 Sep;86(Pt 9):2489-2494. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.80973-0.


In the absence of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif protein, the host-cell cytidine deaminases APOBEC3F and -3G are co-packaged along with virion RNA. Upon infection of target cells, nascent single-stranded DNA can be edited extensively, invariably giving rise to defective genomes called G-->A hypermutants. Although human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) replicates in the same cell type as HIV-1, it was shown here that HTLV-1 is relatively resistant to the antiviral effects mediated by human APOBEC3B, -3C, -3F and -3G. Nonetheless, a small percentage of genomes (0.1<f<5 %) were edited extensively: up to 97 % of cytidine targets were deaminated. In contrast, hypermutated HTLV-1 genomes were not identified in peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA from ten patients with non-malignant HTLV-1 infection. Thus, although HTLV-1 DNA can indeed be edited by at least four APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases in vitro, they are conspicuously absent in vivo.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • APOBEC-3G Deaminase
  • Base Sequence
  • Cytidine Deaminase / metabolism*
  • Cytosine Deaminase / metabolism
  • DNA, Viral / metabolism
  • Genome, Viral*
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 / chemistry
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 / genetics
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / virology
  • Minor Histocompatibility Antigens
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Nucleoside Deaminases
  • Proteins / metabolism
  • RNA Editing*
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • RNA, Viral / metabolism
  • Repressor Proteins


  • DNA, Viral
  • Minor Histocompatibility Antigens
  • Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • RNA, Viral
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Nucleoside Deaminases
  • APOBEC3F protein, human
  • Cytosine Deaminase
  • APOBEC-3G Deaminase
  • APOBEC3B protein, human
  • APOBEC3C protein, human
  • APOBEC3G protein, human
  • Cytidine Deaminase