Delta (Y), MB1 (X), and Z are the three catalytic beta-subunits located in the inner rings of the constitutive proteasome, an intracellular multicatalytic complex responsible for the generation of peptides presented by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigens to T cells. When cells are incubated with interferon-gamma, delta (Y), MB1 (X), and Z are replaced by LMP2, LMP7, and LMP10, respectively, leading to the expression of immunoproteasome which generates peptides with increased affinity for HLA class I antigens. The characterization of the expression of constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome subunits in cells, normal tissues, and malignant lesions has been hampered by the lack or limited availability of constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome subunit-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which are suitable for immunohistochemical staining. To overcome this limitation, we generated human delta (Y), MB1 (X), Z, LMP2, LMP7, and LMP10-specific mAb-secreting hybridomas from BALB/c mice immunized with peptides and recombinant fusion proteins. The mAbs SY-5, SJJ-3, NB-1, SY-1, HB-2, and TO-7 were shown to be specific for delta (Y), MB1 (X), Z, LMP2, LMP7, and LMP10, respectively, as they react specifically with the corresponding molecules when tested with a human B lymphoid LG2 cell lysate in Western blotting and with the peptide derived from each molecule in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The reactivity of the six mAbs with the corresponding intracellular antigens resulted in intracellular staining when the mAbs were tested with microwave-treated and saponin-permeabilized cells in indirect immunofluorescence and with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections in immunohistochemical reactions. These results suggest that the constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome subunit-specific mAbs we have developed are useful probes to characterize the expression of proteasome subunits in normal tissues and in pathological lesions.