In the light of stomatal opening: new insights into 'the Watergate'

New Phytol. 2005 Sep;167(3):665-91. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01460.x.


Stomata can be regarded as hydraulically driven valves in the leaf surface, which open to allow CO2 uptake and close to prevent excessive loss of water. Movement of these 'Watergates' is regulated by environmental conditions, such as light, CO2 and humidity. Guard cells can sense environmental conditions and function as motor cells within the stomatal complex. Stomatal movement results from the transport of K+ salts across the guard cell membranes. In this review, we discuss the biophysical principles and mechanisms of stomatal movement and relate these to ion transport at the plasma membrane and vacuolar membrane. Studies with isolated guard cells, combined with recordings on single guard cells in intact plants, revealed that light stimulates stomatal opening via blue light-specific and photosynthetic-active radiation-dependent pathways. In addition, guard cells sense changes in air humidity and the water status of distant tissues via the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Guard cells thus provide an excellent system to study cross-talk, as multiple signaling pathways induce both short- and long-term responses in these sensory cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carbohydrate Metabolism
  • Carbon Dioxide / metabolism
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism
  • Ion Transport
  • Light
  • Photosynthesis
  • Plant Epidermis / physiology
  • Plant Leaves / cytology
  • Plant Leaves / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Water / metabolism*


  • Water
  • Carbon Dioxide