Managing the manganese: molecular mechanisms of manganese transport and homeostasis

New Phytol. 2005 Sep;167(3):733-42. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01453.x.


Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal nutrient for plants. Recently, some of the genes responsible for transition metal transport in plants have been identified; however, only relatively recently have Mn2+ transport pathways begun to be identified at the molecular level. These include transporters responsible for Mn accumulation into the cell and release from various organelles, and for active sequestration into endomembrane compartments, particularly the vacuole and the endoplasmic reticulum. Several transporter gene families have been implicated in Mn2+ transport, including cation/H+ antiporters, natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) transporters, zinc-regulated transporter/iron-regulated transporter (ZRT/IRT1)-related protein (ZIP) transporters, the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) transporter family, and P-type ATPases. The identification of mutants with altered Mn phenotypes can allow the identification of novel components in Mn homeostasis. In addition, the characterization of Mn hyperaccumulator plants can increase our understanding of how plants can adapt to excess Mn, and ultimately allow the identification of genes that confer this stress tolerance. The identification of genes responsible for Mn2+ transport has substantially improved our understanding of plant Mn homeostasis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biological Transport, Active / physiology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Genes, Plant
  • Homeostasis
  • Ion Transport / physiology*
  • Manganese / metabolism*
  • Mutation
  • Plants / genetics
  • Plants / metabolism*


  • Manganese