To review the state of research on the association between common chronic health conditions and academic outcomes, the authors reviewed published studies investigating the association of school attendance, cognitive ability, and achievement with a number of chronic diseases. Tables with brief descriptions of each study's research methods and outcomes are included. Research reveals evidence that diabetes, sickle cell anemia, and epilepsy affect student achievement and ability. Levels of academic deficiency and specific areas of cognitive impairment are not as well understood. Many chronic conditions are not well researched. Suggestions for further research and recommendations for educators and health practitioners are provided.