Virology, pathology, and clinical manifestations of West Nile virus disease

Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Aug;11(8):1174-9. doi: 10.3201/eid1108.050289b.


West Nile virus (WNV) causes epidemics of febrile illness, meningitis, encephalitis, and flaccid paralysis. Since it was first detected in New York City in 1999, and through 2004, >16,000 WNV disease cases have been reported in the United States. Over the past 5 years, research on WNV disease has expanded rapidly. This review highlights new information regarding the virology, clinical manifestations, and pathology of WNV disease, which will provide a new platform for further research into diagnosis, treatment, and possible prevention of WNV through vaccination.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Viral Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • West Nile Fever / diagnosis
  • West Nile Fever / drug therapy
  • West Nile Fever / pathology*
  • West Nile Fever / virology*
  • West Nile virus / growth & development*


  • Antiviral Agents
  • Viral Vaccines