Alcohol, ALDH2, and esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis which illustrates the potentials and limitations of a Mendelian randomization approach

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Aug;14(8):1967-71. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0196.


Mendelian randomization, the use of common polymorphisms as surrogates for measuring exposure levels in epidemiologic studies, provides one method of assessing the causal nature of some environmental exposures. This can be illustrated by looking at the association between the ALDH2 polymorphism and esophageal cancer. Alcohol drinking is considered a risk factor for esophageal cancer, and exposure to high levels of acetaldehyde, the principal metabolite of alcohol, may be responsible for the increased cancer risk. The ability to metabolize acetaldehyde is encoded by the ALDH2 gene, which is polymorphic in some populations. The ALDH2*2 allele produces an inactive protein subunit, which is unable to metabolize acetaldehyde. An individual's genotype at this locus may influence their esophageal cancer risk through two mechanisms, first through influencing alcohol intake and second through influencing acetaldehyde levels. We have carried out a meta-analysis of studies looking at the ALDH2 genotype and esophageal cancer and found that risk was reduced among *2*2 homozygotes [odds ratio (OR), 0.36; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.16-0.80] and increased among heterozygotes (OR, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.86-5.47) relative to *1*1 homozygotes. This provides strong evidence that alcohol intake increases the risk of esophageal cancer and individuals whose genotype results in markedly lower intake, because they have an adverse reaction to alcohol are thus protected. This meta-analysis also provides evidence that acetaldehyde plays a carcinogenic role in esophageal cancer. The two different processes operating as a result of the ALDH2 genotype have implications for the interpretation of studies using the Mendelian randomization paradigm.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acetaldehyde / metabolism
  • Alcohol Dehydrogenase / genetics*
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Ethanol / administration & dosage
  • Ethanol / adverse effects
  • Ethanol / metabolism*
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Random Allocation
  • Risk Factors


  • Ethanol
  • ADH1B protein, human
  • Alcohol Dehydrogenase
  • Acetaldehyde