Effect of administration of ketorolac and local anaesthetic infiltration for pain relief after laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy

J Int Med Res. Jul-Aug 2005;33(4):372-8. doi: 10.1177/147323000503300402.


The efficacy of local anaesthetic infiltration and/or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for post-operative analgesia following laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) was investigated in 83 patients, randomized into four groups in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study: group BK, local infiltration with bupivacaine and pre-incisional intramuscular (IM) ketorolac; group NN, saline local infiltration IM; group BN, local infiltration with bupivacaine and saline IM; group NK, local infiltration with saline and ketorolac IM. Post-operative pain scores were assessed at 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The major pain site, first analgesic request time and incidence of analgesic requests were also recorded. At 1 h, 3 h and 6 h after surgery, group BK patients had significantly lower VAS pain scores than group NN patients. The first analgesic request time was significantly longer in group BK than in groups NN, BN and NK. Pre-incisional treatment with ketorolac IM and local infiltration with bupivacaine reduced post-operative pain after LAVH.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analgesia
  • Anesthesia, Local*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use*
  • Bupivacaine / administration & dosage*
  • Bupivacaine / therapeutic use
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hysterectomy, Vaginal / methods*
  • Ketorolac / administration & dosage*
  • Laparoscopy / methods*
  • Middle Aged
  • Pain Measurement
  • Pain, Postoperative / therapy*
  • Placebos
  • Time Factors


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Placebos
  • Bupivacaine
  • Ketorolac