Rating scale for psychogenic movement disorders: scale development and clinimetric testing

Mov Disord. 2005 Dec;20(12):1592-7. doi: 10.1002/mds.20650.


We developed and tested the clinimetric properties of a scale for psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs). PMDs are disabling but lack any generally accepted treatment strategies. To develop treatments, means of assessing disease severity must be provided. No scale to assess PMDs existed. The PMD scale developed here rates 10 phenomena (rest tremor, action tremor, dystonia, chorea, bradykinesia, myoclonus, tics, athetosis, ballism, cerebellar incoordination), 2 functions (gait, speech), and 14 body regions. To study interrater agreement, three movement disorder neurologists independently rated 88 videotapes of PMD patients. Data analysis was performed using a kappa coefficient of agreement, Kendall's coefficient of concordance, Spearman correlations, and intraclass correlation coefficients. Validity and scale responsiveness were tested as well. All phenomena and speech and gait dysfunction occurred in the patient sample. A wide range of affected body regions, severity, and incapacitation was captured. Ratings showed excellent interrater reliability for presence or absence of each phenomenon (kappa range, 0.63 to 0.86). Kendall's concordance coefficients for phenomenology, function, and total PMD scores were 0.92, 0.93, and 0.91. Spearman correlations between raters ranged from 0.86 to 0.90. The scale was responsive to changes that occurred as a result of a neuropsychiatric intervention. The PMD scale adequately captures the complex movements of PMDs and can be used to assess PMDs and test the efficacy of intervention strategies.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Demography
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Movement / physiology
  • Movement Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Movement Disorders / physiopathology*
  • Neurologic Examination / methods
  • Observer Variation
  • Psychometrics / methods*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Severity of Illness Index*
  • Somatoform Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Somatoform Disorders / physiopathology*
  • Weights and Measures