Normal nociceptors are sensitized by hyperalgesic mediators such as eicosanoids and tachykinins. The possibility that these mediators contribute to hyperalgesic pain associated with neural injury was investigated by examining their effects on the excitability of injured afferent nerve endings. In amounts that sensitize normal nociceptors and are hyperalgesic in normal skin, the eicosanoids prostaglandin I2 (PGI2), and 8(R),15(S)-dihydroxyicosatetraenoic acid (8(R),15(S)-diHETE) both excited some C-fibers in chronic neuromas of rat sciatic nerve. In contrast, the selective tachykinin-receptor agonists septide and senktide did not excite C-fibers. None of the mediators affected A-fibers. We conclude that PGI2 and 8(R),15(S)-diHETE may contribute to post-injury pain and hyperalgesia by an action on injured afferent endings.