Helicobacter pylori genetic diversity and geographic distribution affect the severity of gastric histology; while eradication heals gastritis, the improvement of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia (IM) is still controversial. We investigated whether H. pylori infection and genotypes (cagA-vacA) influence the histological changes and whether eradication resolves these changes. Twenty-one patients (11 duodenal ulcer, 2 gastric ulcer, 8 gastritis) received treatment. Biopsies for CLO, PCR, histology, and culture were collected before and at 1 and 12 months after treatment, and serum samples at 0, 1, 2, 6, and 12 months. H. pylori eradication was achieved in 71% of the patients. Histological scores for H. pylori densities were significantly higher in the antrum and incisura angularis. Scores for mononuclear cell and neutrophil infiltration were significantly higher in regions with a high H. pylori density and improved progressively after eradication. Eight patients with atrophy including five with IM showed no significant changes 12 months after eradication. The cagA gene, detected in 13 (62%), the vacA-sla gene, in 20 (95%), and the vacA-m1 gene, in 12 (57%) of 21 patients were significantly associated with duodenal ulcer. A gradual decline in antibody titer reached an average of 67% 12 months after eradication. H. pylori infection and the associated genotypes (cagA of Western type) affect the severity of the gastric histology (mild forms of atrophy and IM) and the disease outcome. Eradication of H. pylori resulted in healing of gastritis, but with no significant improvement in atrophy or IM.