Drinking portrayals and alcohol advertising are common in popular media and young people are highly exposed to them. Although some studies found that exposure to drinking portrayals is related to increases in drinking among youth, other studies produced mixed and inconclusive findings. Similarly, research on the effects of alcohol advertising presents mixed findings. Recent longitudinal research and studies that used modeling techniques that controlled for reciprocal effects suggests that exposure to, attention to, and liking of alcohol advertising may influence children and adolescents' drinking beliefs and behaviors. Further research, and particularly longitudinal studies that address at-risk populations, such as children and minorities, is necessary before firm conclusions about the effects of media portrayals and alcohol advertising can be reached.