A comprehensive review of interventions in the NOD mouse and implications for translation

Immunity. 2005 Aug;23(2):115-26. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2005.08.002.


Type 1 diabetes (T1D) animal models such as the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse have improved our understanding of disease pathophysiology, but many candidate therapeutics identified therein have failed to prevent/cure human disease. We have performed a comprehensive evaluation of disease-modifying agents tested in the NOD mouse based on treatment timing, duration, study length, and efficacy. Interestingly, some popular tenets regarding NOD interventions were not confirmed: all treatments do not prevent disease, treatment dose and timing strongly influence efficacy, and several therapies have successfully treated overtly diabetic mice. The analysis provides a unique perspective on NOD interventions and suggests that the response of this model to therapeutic interventions can be a useful predictor of the human response as long as careful consideration is given to treatment dose, timing, and protocols; more thorough investigation of these parameters should improve clinical translation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / immunology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / physiopathology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / therapy*
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred NOD