Humans are exposed to many environmental chemicals, some of which can potentially affect neurodevelopment. Fetuses, infants, and young children are the most susceptible to the effects of these chemicals. As part of the National Health and Examination Survey, 1999-2000, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention analyzed biological samples for many of these chemicals in a representative sampling of the U.S. population. Concentration data of selected metals, persistent organic pollutants, organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides, and cotinine are presented. For example, the 95th percentile estimates for serum total PCBs (whole weight) in the population aged 20 years and older is about 2.7 ng/g. The 95th percentile estimates for serum dioxin total toxic equivalence in the U.S. population aged 20 years and older is between 40 and 50 pg/g lipid basis. In general, human levels of these chemicals are decreasing over time in the U.S. population. This reflects the effects of legislation, industry efforts, and changes in lifestyle/activity patterns in the U.S. population. These data will continue to be collected in 2-year cycles and thus allow changes in human levels to be followed.