Modification of medullary respiratory-related discharge patterns by behaviors and states of arousal

Brain Res. 1992 Feb 7;571(2):281-92. doi: 10.1016/0006-8993(92)90666-w.


The modulatory influences of behaviors and states of arousal on bulbar respiratory-related unit (RRU) discharge patterns were studied in an unanesthetized, freely behaving guinea pig respiratory model system. When fully instrumented, this model system permits concurrent monitoring and recording of (i) single units from either Bötzinger complex or nucleus para-ambiguus; (ii) electrocorticogram; and, (iii) diaphragmatic EMG. In addition to being used in surveys of RRU discharge patterns in freely behaving states, the model system also offered a unique opportunity in investigating the effects of pentobarbital on RRU discharge patterns before, throughout the course of, and during recovery from anesthesia. In anesthetized preparations, a particular RRU discharge pattern (such as tonic, incrementing or decrementing) typically displayed little, if any notable variation. The most striking development following pentobarbital was a state of progressive bradypnea attributable to a significantly augmented RRU cycle duration, burst duration and an increase in the RRU spike frequencies during anesthesia. In freely behaving states, medullary RRU activities rarely adhered to a fixed, immutable discharge pattern. More specifically, the temporal organization (such as burst duration, cycle duration, and the extent of modulation of within-burst spike frequencies) of RRU discharge patterns regularly showed complex and striking variations, not only with states of arousal (sleep/wakefulness, anesthesia) but also with discrete alterations in electrocorticogram (ECoG) activities and a multitude of on-going behavioral repertoires such as volitional movement, postural modification, phonation, mastication, deglutition, sniffing/exploratory behavior, alerting/startle reflexes. Only during sleep, and on occasions when the animal assumed a motionless, resting posture, could burst patterns of relatively invariable periodicity and uniform temporal attributes be observed. RRU activities during sniffing reflex is worthy of further note in that, based on power spectrum analyses of concurrently recorded ECoG activities, this particular discharge pattern was clearly associated with the activation of a 6-10 Hz theta rhythm. These findings indicated that bulbar RRU activity patterns are subject to change by not only behaviors and sleep/wakefulness cycles, but also a variety of modulatory influences and feedback/feedforward biases from other central and peripheral physiological control mechanisms.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Arousal / physiology*
  • Behavior, Animal / physiology*
  • Cerebral Cortex / physiology*
  • Electroencephalography
  • Electromyography
  • Exploratory Behavior / physiology
  • Guinea Pigs
  • Male
  • Medulla Oblongata / physiology*
  • Respiration / physiology*
  • Sleep / physiology
  • Smell
  • Vocalization, Animal