Thirteen independent populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (nine haploid and four diploid) were maintained in continuous culture for up to approximately 1000 generations, with growth limited by the concentration of organic phosphates in medium buffered at pH 6. Analysis of clones isolated from these populations showed that a number (17) of large-scale chromosomal-length variants and rearrangements were present in the populations at their termination. Nine of the 16 yeast chromosomes were involved in such changes. Few of the changes could be explained by copy-number increases in the structural loci for acid phosphatase. Several considerations concerning the nature and frequency of the chromosome-length variants observed lead us to conclude that they are selectively advantageous.