With the goal of finding serological markers to monitor patients with early- as well as late-stage melanoma, we compared the levels of the cytoplasmic melanoma-associated antigens (CYT-MAA) and high-molecular-weight melanoma-associated antigen (HMW-MAA) in the sera of melanoma patients and controls. Using double-sandwich ELISA, we measured levels of both antigens in 117 patients and in 62 age- and sex-matched controls. Patients were stratified into four risk group based on stage of the disease. Serum levels of both markers were significantly higher in melanoma patients than in controls. CYT-MAA was the more sensitive marker, with 61% of patients showing elevated levels regardless of the stage of disease. HMW-MAA was elevated in 29%. Elevated CYT-MAA was also significantly correlated with poorer clinical outcome. By multivariate analysis (adjusting for stage and age), patients who had elevated CYT-MAA were 81% more likely to recur than patients with undetectable levels (hazard ratio=1.81, 95% CI=[1.07, 3.06], p-value=0.03). Elevated levels of HMW-MAA did not correlate with poor prognosis. These results suggest that both CYT-MAA and HMW-MAA are serum markers for residual melanoma in patients with resected disease. Furthermore, CYT-MAA appears to be a prognostic marker of clinical outcome in melanoma vaccine-treated patients.