Purpose: The impact of acute weight loss on rowing performance was assessed when generous nutrient intake was provided in 2 h of recovery after making weight.
Methods: Competitive rowers (N = 17) completed four ergometer trials, each separated by 48 h. Two trials were performed after a 4% body mass loss in the previous 24 h (WT) and two were performed after no weight restrictions, that is, unrestricted (UNR). In addition, two trials (1 x WT, 1 x UNR) were in a thermoneutral environment (NEUTRAL, mean 21.1 +/- SD 0.7 degrees C, 29.0 +/- 4.5% RH) and two were in the heat (HOT 32.4, +/- 0.4 degrees C, 60.4 +/- 2.7% RH). Trials were performed in a counterbalanced fashion according to a Latin square design. Aggressive nutritional recovery strategies (WT 2.3 g x kg(-1) carbohydrate, 34 mg x kg(-1) Na, 28.4 mL x kg(-1) fluid; UNR ad libitum) were employed in the 2 h after weigh-in.
Results: Both WT (mean 2.1, 95% CI 0.7-3.4 s; P = 0.003) and HOT (4.1, 2.7 - 5.4 s; P < 0.001) compromised 2000-m time-trial performance. Whereas WT resulted in hypohydration, the associated reduction in plasma volume explained only part of the performance compromise observed (0.2 s for every 1% decrement) Moreover, WT did not influence core temperature or indices of cardiovascular function.
Conclusions: Acute weight loss compromised performance, despite generous nutrient intake in recovery, although the effect was small. Performance decrements were further exacerbated when exercise was performed in the heat.