To build a quantitative model of molecular organization of neurons, it is essential to have information about the number of protein molecules at individual synapses. Here we developed a method to estimate absolute numbers of individual proteins at actual excitatory synapses by calibrating the fluorescence intensity of microspheres with single EGFP molecules. In cultured hippocampal neurons, we observed a monotonous increase of postsynaptic protein numbers per single synapse during neuronal differentiation and subsequent stabilization. At maturity we calculated that a single excitatory postsynaptic site contains 100-450 of individual postsynaptic proteins, such as PSD-95, GKAP, Shank and Homer. This narrow range of postsynaptic protein content suggests relatively simple stoichiometry of postsynaptic molecular organization. The EGFP-based calibration technique provides an unprecedented general method for estimating the amounts of proteins in macromolecular complexes.